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Page 3 — JSP Syntax

JSP supports two basic styles of delimiting its scripting elements from page content. The first looks a great deal like ASP, whereas the second can be used to create JSP that is fully XML compliant. Here, let's take a look:

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Intro to JSP (Java Server Pages)

by David Markley 31 May 2001

Choosing a server-side language used to be easy. Way back when, CGI was pretty much the only scripting option out there. Intrepid developers could write their own server extensions, but few were up to the challenge, and the gap between these two options (inefficient CGI scripts and extremely complex server extension development) was huge.

Microsoft tried to fill this hole with Active Server Pages (ASP), which allow developers to use simple scripting to access the server and its extensions. But while ASP gives you an efficient way to return dynamic content, it essentially limits you to Microsoft platforms, and even the simplest of scripting mistakes can cause the server to crash or hang, effectively bringing down your website.

Apparently in response to ASP, Sun Microsystems gave the world JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology, which is based entirely upon Sun's popular Java programming language and gives developers the advantages of developing in Java in a more relaxed, script-like environment. Behind the scenes, JSP pages are dynamically assembled into Servlets, which are simply Java classes. This means JSP supports the same modularity, reusability, platform-independence, and access to Java APIs that Java programming supports.

Thanks to its foundation in Java and its use of Java threads to handle incoming requests, JSP is a great deal more efficient than many other scripting languages, such as CGI. Its threading model and error handling also help prevent server hangs and crashes. And when the underlying Java Virtual Machine (JVM) makes use of Just In Time (JIT) compilation, the performance of well-written JSP can approach that of C++.

JSP also bests ASP by supporting the definition of tags that abstract functionality within a page, so tags can be defined in a tag library and then used within any JSP page. This makes for a better separation of page content from its code, which is one of Web development's prime directives. The less code scattered throughout the pages of a website, the easier the site is to maintain. Global changes need only be made to the tags defined in a central library, making time-consuming, page-by-page fixes things of the past.

For those XML lovers among us, good news: JSP pages can be written in well-formed, valid XML by using XSLT. (For those of you who aren't XML-spawn, this simply means that JSP can make full use of a very powerful and widely accepted data format and all the tools and support that go with it.)

And unlike ASP, JSP is a lot less platform-specific and it doesn't rely as heavily on the company that created it for support or performance improvements. That said, there are some similarities between JSP and ASP. Here, let's closer look at how the two compare.

Page 2 — JSP versus ASP

JSP and ASP do have some basic concepts in common. They both make use of simple sever-side scripting to provide access to Web server information and functionality. They both do so using object oriented scripting. And they both started out with similar styles of delimiting this scripting from a page's content. In fact, Microsoft is replacing ASP with ASP+ (or the .NET architecture), which is even more like JSP than ASP in that its pages are compiled upon request and run in a "virtual machine" (which supports multiple languages and is written in C#).

Yet while ASP primarily supports two scripting languages -- JScript and VBScript -- JSP actually supports real Java code, not a new scripting language. The difference is that the Java code inside a JSP page is more script-like because it doesn't require Java class and package definitions. As you will see, the Java code inside JSP is added to methods of a Java Servlet that are generated the first time the JSP is requested. Of course, JScript, VBScript, and Java are all object oriented to some degree, or maybe to avoid getting into a political argument with those of you would dispute this claim I should refer to them as "Quasi-Object-Oriented." Whatever we choose to call them, we can at least agree that the scripting languages used by JSP and ASP are all provided with a set of pre-established objects by the Web server that they use to generate a dynamic Web page.

The following table lists some of the pre-established (instantiated, for the purist) objects that are available in both ASP and JSP.

RequestrequestAccess to request information. This includes such items as input/form parameters, HTTP request header information, etc.
ResponseresponseAccess to response information and construction. This includes output MIME type and other HTTP response headers as well as the output stream itself.
SessionsessionAccess to session information.
ApplicationapplicationAccess to application information.
Response.WriteoutAccess to the response output stream. JSP provides a convenience object for direct output to this stream, whereas ASP uses a Response object method.

Note that JSP is Java, so it is case sensitive. But capitalization doesn't matter in VBScript, so if you stick to lowercase, there really isn't any difference in the names.

These are the main objects we have to work with when creating dynamic content in either ASP or JSP, so it's a good idea to become familiar with their methods. I'll use some of them in the examples that follow, but I can't go into every method available within the limits of this article.

As I mentioned earlier, both ASP and JSP support a similar way of delimiting scripting from content on a page. <% and %> are used to set of sections of script, '<%=' and '%>' are used to return a value within content, and <%@ and %> are used to delimit page directives. Here is a brief example using both ASP and JSP:

ASP (using JScript)
<%@ LANGUAGE = JScript %>
<TITLE>Simple Scripting Tricks</TITLE>
Anyone can count like this:<BR>

   for (i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
     Response.Write(i + "<BR>");
   i = 1000000;
It would take a long time, however, to count to <%= i %>.
<%@ page language="java" %>
<TITLE>Simple Scripting Tricks</TITLE>
Anyone can count like this:<BR>
   for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
     out.println(i + "<BR>");
   i = 1000000;

It would take a long time, however, to count to <%= i %>.
HTML Output (from either JSP or ASP)
<TITLE>Simple Scripting Tricks</TITLE>
Anyone can count like this:<BR>

It would take a long time, however, to count to 1000000.

As you can see, there are some basic similarities between ASP and JSP. In fact, in this simple example, there's almost no difference. When we look deeper into JSP, however, fundamental differences will appear.

JSP Syntax
Base StyleXML StyleDescription
<%@ directive %> <jsp:directive.directive/>Directives are used to specify page information, include other files, and specify tag libraries being used.
<%! declarative code %> <jsp:declaration>
declarative code
This code is placed as a declaration in the servlet that is generated. This is the only place that new methods can be declared.
<% code fragment %> <jsp:scriptlet>
code fragment
This code is placed within a base method of the generated servlet.
<%= code expression %> <jsp:expression>
code expression

Some versions  use <jsp:expr/>

This code is placed within the base method of the generated servlet, where it is appended to the output stream being returned for the page. 

To utilize the XML Style delimiters, you have to format your JSP as an XML document. This requires some additional modification, like using <jsp:root/> as your the root XML node and making sure your page is well-formed XML. This conversion and the use of the XML Style are outside the scope of this article, but if XML is important to you or your project, you should definitely investigate them further on your own time.

If you're interested in learning more about XML and JSP, the book Professional Java XML Programming with Servlets and JSP is an excellent investment -- though if you're not quite ready to roll out the dough, JavaSoft's PDF about the matter is free for the downloading.

The most important things to know as you create your JSP website are the four basic types of delimeters: directives, declarations, fragments, and expressions. The following example is a complete JSP page that uses the base style of each delimiter:

LineComplete JSP

<%@ page info="Example"
import="java.io.*,java.util.*" %>
<%! String title = "Example JSP Page" %>
<%@ include file ="header.inc" %>

Anyone can count like this:<BR>
   for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
     out.println(i + "<BR>");
   i = 1000000;
It would take a lifetime, however to count to <%= i %>.
<%@ include file ="footer.inc" %>

In line 1, the page directive sets the generated servlet info to "Example" and makes sure that "java.io.*" and "java.util.*" are imported for use in the servlet. The import is, well, important, since without these imports there would be no access to additional Java APIs.

Line 2 declares title as a class variable. This variable can now be used in any following code. Most likely, it is used by the code in header.inc, which is included in place on line 3.

Line 4 is plain page content. This is sent to the output stream.

Lines 5 through 10 define a code fragment that writes out the numbers 1 to 5, with breaks in between, to the output stream.

Line 6 is page content that includes an expression. This content is sent to the output stream with the expression inserted.

Line 7 includes the footer.inc file, which presumably has some more content we want to place at the bottom of this file.

If you followed all that, then you now have a basic understanding of JSP syntax and are armed with enough knowledge to do some small amount of damage to your website. One gotcha that you should know about is that when included files are changed, the servlet generated by the JSP is not usually regenerated. So if you make a change to an included file, make sure to tell your server to regenerate the servlet for the including JSP. Another way to do this is to re-save the including JSP. This changes the file modification timestamp, which is supposed to cause the servlet to regenerate.

Now that we've taken a look at the basic syntax, let's take a look at how we can use the access objects that JSP provides us to detect the incoming browser and respond appropriately.

Page 4 — JSP Browser Detection

JSP provides us with access objects that we can use to get information from the incoming request and modify the resulting response. This makes it possible for us to do things like identify what type of browser is making the request. We can then set up a different type of request based upon what that browser supports.

The following example determines whether the incoming browser is Internet Explorer, Netscape, or a WML client (like a cell phone). Depending on the browser it finds, it returns an appropriate greeting. Let's take a gander at an example of this at work. (Note: I'm going to use line numbering here because it makes the explanation of the example so much easier, but it isn't part of the code -- it's just there for reference.)

Browser Detection in JSP
<%@ page
info="Greetings" errorPage="err.jsp" %>

This first line simply adds some arbitrary information to the generated servlet and tells the Web server to redirect any Java errors encountered on the page to the err.jsp page. Other things that can be done in this page directive include importing various Java APIs.

public final static int IE = 0;
public final static int NETSCAPE = 1;
public final static int WML = 2;

public int getBrowser(HttpServletRequest request) {
   String accept = request.getHeader("ACCEPT");
   if (null != accept && -1 !=
accept.indexOf("wml")) {
     return WML;
   String agent = request.getHeader("USER-AGENT");
   if (null != agent && -1 !=
agent.indexOf("MSIE")) {
     return IE;
   return NETSCAPE;

This section of code declares three static values that represent the different browser types we are detecting. It also defines the getBrowser() method that accepts the request object and uses it to determine what browser has made the request. It does so by looking at the ACCEPT HTTP request header to see if the browser will accept wml. If it doesn't, it then looks at the USER-AGENT HTTP request header to see if it contains "MSIE." If it does, then the browser making the request is IE. Otherwise, we assume it's a Netscape browser.

   switch (getBrowser(request)) {
   case WML:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<card id="index" title="Browser Greeting">
<p align="center">Hello, Wireless Fan!</p>

   case IE:
<HTML><BODY><H1>Hello, IE
<HTML><BODY><H1>Hello, Netscape


In the last section of code, we used the declared getBrowser() method in a Java switch statement to determine what should be returned to the browser. For IE and Netscape browsers, a simple HTML document is returned. For WML-accepting browsers, the content type of the response is set to text/vnd.wap.wml and a WML document is returned.

In these very meaningful forty-two lines of code, we have a simple page that will serve up a pleasant greeting to three different browsers. If all has gone well, creating this code should have whetted your appetite for more. If you're interested in pushing JSP even further, then read on for a list of additional resources you can use to expand your JSP horizons.

Digging Deeper Intro to JSP

Page 5 — Digging Deeper

So far, I've touched on creating JSP as a well-formed XML document. I also mentioned the concept of creating a tag library for use throughout your website. But as you dive even further into JSP development, you'll find that there is quite a bit more to learn:

There are a number of servers that support JSP on the market. The two I am most familiar with are JRun and Tomcat. I've also used Enhydra, which is an open source application server that uses Tomcat's technology internally. Try one and see how you like it.

If you're looking at doing a large-scale project in JSP, I strongly recommend that you create your own tag library because it will make supporting your website a whole lot simpler. For more information about tag libraries, check out JSPtags.com or JSP Insider.

Another powerful feature of JSP that we haven't covered yet is its ability to utilize JavaBeans with special tags defined in JSP. For more information about this, peruse Sun's JavaBean overview.

If you're looking to push your JSP envelope further, the best place to start is at the source, Sun Microsystems. Their support pages include the JSP specification and documentation of the supporting Java classes. As you explore, make sure you get a good idea about the underlying Java Servlet technology, since this is what all JSP must become behind the scenes.

You'll find that Sun's site also gives you an extra helping of propaganda. As a rule, you should never believe anyone's marketing department, but in this case, Sun's information to be generally accurate. It is true, for instance, that you can re-use JSP on multiple platforms without much trouble. In my experience, the difficulty of moving from one JSP platform to another lies with the Java APIs that are imported by default. On some platforms you must specifically import java.io.* and on others you don't. It doesn't hurt to import anything that doesn't come from java.lang.*, so do it. It will make your life easier in the future.

As you open up JSP and really see what it can do, you'll soon find that, with practice, anyone (not just Java developers) can make use of the powerful set of tools that JSP provides.

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